Consumo de alcohol en personas con discapacidad intelectual

Revisión sistemática

  • Carolina Jiménez Díaz Universidad de Oviedo
  • Laura E. Gómez Sánchez Universidad de Oviedo
  • Gloria García Fernández Universidad de Oviedo
Palabras clave: Discapacidad intelectual, alcohol, trastorno por uso de alcohol, revisión sistemática, PRISMA, predictores, trastorno por uso de sustancias

Resumen


La cada vez mayor inclusión social de las personas con discapacidad intelectual en la sociedad ha supuesto una mayor visibilidad y una mayor exposición a conductas de riesgo como el consumo de sustancias. Se presenta una revisión sistemática del consumo de alcohol en la población con discapacidad intelectual a partir de una búsqueda bibliográfica en las principales bases de datos y un análisis siguiendo el método PRISMA donde se incluyeron 24 artículos. Se encuentran altas tasas de consumo de alcohol en personas con discapacidad intelectual y, especialmente, en jóvenes, varones y personas que han cometido un delito. La edad de inicio, los factores de riesgo y los motivos de consumo de alcohol son similares a los de la población sin discapacidad intelectual. Es necesario que los programas de prevención e intervención eficaces basados en la evidencia para el consumo de sustancias resulten accesibles para población con discapacidad intelectual.

Biografía del autor/a

Carolina Jiménez Díaz, Universidad de Oviedo

Graduada en Psicología y máster en Psicología General Sanitaria por la Universidad de Oviedo.

Laura E. Gómez Sánchez, Universidad de Oviedo

Profesora titular del departamento de Psicología de la Universidad de Oviedo, integrante del Instituto Universitario de Integración en la Comunidad (INICO) e investigadora principal del Grupo de Investigación Reconocido sobre Discapacidad de la Universidad de Oviedo. Editora asociada de Psicothema y miembro del Comité Editorial de Siglo Cero. Premio Extraordinario de Doctorado, Premio Infanta Cristina 2010 en su modalidad de investigación e International Award por la American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disaibilities (AAIDD), su línea preferente de investigación se centra en la calidad de vida y los derechos de las personas con discapacidad intelectual. Es coautora de varios instrumentos de evaluación de la calidad de vida de personas con discapacidad (Gencat, Integral, Inico-FEAPS, Fumat, KidsLife, Cavidace).

Gloria García Fernández, Universidad de Oviedo

Profesora Ayudante Doctor del departamento de Psicología de la Universidad de Oviedo y miembro del Grupo de Investigación de Conductas Adictivas de esta Universidad. Premio Extraordinario de Doctorado y premio Early Career Investigator Award otorgado por el College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD) de Estados Unidos. Editora asociada de Psicothema, es también secretaria de la Sociedad Española de Psicología Clínica y de la Salud (SEPCyS) y responsable del Grupo de Psicología de las Adicciones del Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias. Su trayectoria clínica, docente e investigadora se ha desarrollado en al ámbito de las conductas adictivas y alimentarias. Sus publicaciones se han centrado en el ámbito de la evaluación, prevención y el tratamiento de las conductas adictivas, tanto en adultos como en adolescentes.

Citas

Asociación Americana de Psiquiatría (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5a ed.). Asociación Americana de Psiquiatría.

Asscher, J. J. et al. (2012). Differences between juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability in offense type and risk factors. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(6), pp. 1905-1913. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2012.05.022.

Axmon, A. et al. (2017). Gender differences in psychiatric diagnoses in older people with intellectual disability: a register study. BioMed Central Psychiatry, 17(1), p. 192. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-017-1353-8.

Bachman, S. S. et al. (2004). Medicaid managed care, substance abuse treatment, and people with disabilities: review of the literature. Health and Social Work, 29(3), pp. 189-196. https://doi.org/10.1093/hsw/29.3.189.

Baena, B. C. et al. (2012). Motivos para el consumo de drogas legales y su relación con la salud en los adolescentes madrileños. Revista Española de Drogodependencias, 37(3), pp. 257-268.

Barnhill, J. (2000). Triple diagnosis: Substance abuse disorders, mental illness and mental retardation. NADD.

Burgard, J. F. et al. (2000). Prevalence and treatment of substance abuse in the mentally retarded population: An empirical review. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 32(3), pp. 293-298. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2000.10400452.

Chaplin, E. et al. (2011). “Recreational substance use patterns and comorbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability”. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(6), pp. 2981-2986. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2011.05.002.

Chapman, S. C. L. y Wu, L. T. (2012). Substance abuse among individuals with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(4), pp. 1147-1156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2012.02.009.

Christian, L. y Poling, A. (1997). Drug abuse in persons with mental retardation: A review. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 102(2), pp. 126-136. https://doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(1997)102%3C0126:DAIPWM%3E2.0.CO;2

Cocco, K. M. y Harper, D. C. (2002). Substance use in people with mental retardation a missing link in understanding community outcomes? Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 46(1), pp. 33-40. https://doi.org/10.1177/00343552020460010301.

Cooper, S. A. et al. (2007). Mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities: prevalence and associated factors. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 190(1), pp. 27-35. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.106.022483.

Cooper, S. A. et al. (2015). Multiple physical and mental health comorbidity in adults with intellectual disabilities: population-based cross-sectional analysis. BioMed Central Family Practice, 16(1), p. 110. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12875-015-0329-3.

Didden, R. et al. (2009). Substance abuse, coping strategies, adaptative skills and behavioral and emotional problems in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability admitted to a treatment facility: A pilot study. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30(5), pp. 927-932. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2009.01.002.

Didden, R. et al. (2020). Substance use disorders in people with intellectual disability. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 33(2), pp. 124-129. https://doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000569.

DiNitto, D. y Krishef, C. (1984). Drinking patterns of mentally retarded persons. Alcohol Health and Research World, 8, pp. 40-42.

Emerson, E. et al. (2016). Predictors of self-reported alcohol use and attitudes toward alcohol among 11-year-old British children with and without intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60(12), pp. 1212-1226. https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12334.

Emerson, E. y Turnbull, L. (2005). Self-reported smoking and alcohol use among adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 9(1), pp. 58-69. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744629505049730.

Fakier, N. y Wild, L. G. (2011). Associations among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 34(4), pp. 717-726. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.09.010.

Gray, N. S. et al. (2007). Predicting future reconviction in offenders with intellectual disabilities: The predictive efficacy of VRAG, PCL-SV and the HCR-20. Psychological Assessment, 19(4), pp. 474-479. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.19.4.474.

Gress, J. R. y Boss, M. S. (1996). Substance abuse differences among students receiving special education school services. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 26(4), pp. 235-246. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02353240.

Guerri, C. (2000). Cómo actúa el alcohol en nuestro cerebro. Trastornos Adictivos, 2(1), pp. 14-25.

Hassiotis, A. et al. (2011). Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners with intellectual disabilities: Analysis of prison survey data for England and Wales. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 199(2), pp. 156-157. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.110.088039.

Hodgins, S. (1992). Mental disorder, intellectual deficiency, and crime. Evidence from a birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(6), pp. 476-483. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1992.01820060056009.

Huang, A. (1981). The drinking behavior of the educable mentally retarded and the nonretarded students. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 26(3), pp. 41-49.

Instituto Nacional de Estadística (2008). Encuesta de Discapacidad, Autonomía personal y situaciones de Dependencia (EDAD). https://www.ine.es/prensa/np524.pdf.

Jobling, A. y Cuskelly, M. (2006). Young people with Down syndrome: A preliminary investigation of health knowledge and associated behaviours. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 31(4), pp. 210-218. https://doi.org/10.1080/13668250600999186.

Kerr, S. et al. (2016). Tobacco and alcohol use in people with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities: Giving voice to their health promotion needs. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 30(4), pp. 612-626. https://doi.org/10.1111/jar.12255.

Kouimtsidis, C. et al. (2017). A feasibility randomised controlled trial of extended brief intervention for alcohol misuse in adults with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities living in the community; The EBI-LD study. Trials, 18(1), pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-017-1953-0.

Lin, E. et al. (2016). Substance- related and addictive disorders among adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD): an Ontario population cohort study. BMF Open, 6(9), p. e011638. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011638.

Lindsay, W. R. et al. (2013). Alcohol and its relationship to offence variables in a cohort of offenders with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 38(4), pp. 325-331. https://doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2013.837154.

Männynsalo, L. et al. (2009). Forensic psychiatric perspective on criminality associated with intellectual disability: A nationwide register-based study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 53(3), pp. 279-288. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2008.01125.x.

McGillicuddy, N. B. (2006). A review of substance use research among those with mental retardation. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 12(1), pp. 41-47. https://doi.org/10.1002/mrdd.20092.

McGillicuddy, N. B. y Blane, H. T. (1999). Substance use in individuals with mental retardation. Addictive Behaviors, 24(6), pp. 869-878. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4603(99)00055-6.

McGillivray, J. A. y Moore, M. R. (2001). Substance use by offenders with mild intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 26(4), pp. 297-310. https://doi.org/10.1080/13668250120087317.

McGillivray, J. A. y Newton, D. C. (2016). Self-reported substance use and intervention experience of prisoners with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 41(2), pp. 166-176. https://doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2016.1146944.

McGuire, B. E. et al. (2007). Lifestyle and health behaviours of adults with an intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(7), pp. 497-510. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2006.00915.x.

Moher, D. et al. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med, 6(7), p. e1000097. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097.

Moral, M. V. et al. (2005). Motivadores de consumo de alcohol en adolescentes: análisis de diferencias inter género y propuesta de un continuum etiológico. Adicciones, 17(2), pp. 105-120.

Observatorio Español sobre Drogas (2000). Encuesta sobre drogas a población escolar. Delegación del Gobierno para el Plan Nacional sobre Drogas. https://www.infodrogas.org/files/encuesta-drogas-2000.pdf

Observatorio Español de las Drogas y las Adicciones (2019). Encuesta sobre alcohol y drogas en España (EDADES): 2017-2018. Plan Nacional sobre Drogas. https://pnsd.sanidad.gob.es/profesionales/sistemasInformacion/home.htm.

Organización Mundial de la Salud (2018). Global status report on alcohol and health 2018. Executive summary. Organización Mundial de la Salud. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/312318/WHO-MSD-MSB-18.2-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

Organización Mundial de la Salud (2019). International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11). Organización Mundial de la Salud. https://www.who.int/standards/classifications/classification-of-diseases.

Organización Panamericana de la Salud y Organización Mundial de la Salud (2019). Informe sobre la situación mundial del alcohol y la salud. Organización Panamericana de la Salud. http://iris.paho.org/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/51352/OPSNMH19012_spa.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

Pack, R. P. et al. (1998). Health risk behaviors of African American adolescents with mild mental retardation: Prevalence depends on measurement method. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 102(4), pp. 409-420. https://doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(1998)102<0409:HRBOAA>2.0.CO;2.

Pacoricona, D. L. et al. (2016). Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Do students with mild-intellectual disability mimic students in the general population? Research in Developmental Disabilities, 63, pp. 118-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2016.10.009.

Pezzoni, V. y Kouimtsidis, C. (2015). Screening for alcohol misuse within people attending a psychiatric intellectual disability community service. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 59(4), pp. 353-359. https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12168.

Plant, A. et al. (2011). Substance misuse among offenders in a forensic intellectual disability service. Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, 2(3), pp. 127-135. https://doi.org/10.1108/20420921111186589.

Plena Inclusión (2020). La discapacidad intelectual en cifras. https://www.plenainclusion.org/discapacidadintelectual/la-discapacidad-intelectual-en-cifras.

Poelen, E. A. P. et al. (2016). Personality dimensions and substance use in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 63, pp. 142-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2016.10.003.

Reis, O. et al. (2015). Mild or borderline intellectual disability as a risk for alcohol consumption in adolescents: A matched-pair study. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 63, pp.132-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2015.11.007.

Rimmer, J. H. et al. (1995). Health characteristics and behaviors of adults with mental retardation residing in three living arrangements. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 16(6), pp. 489-499. https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-4222(95)00033-X.

Robertson, J. et al. (2000). Lifestyle related risk factors for poor health in residential settings for people with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 21(6), pp. 469-486. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-4222(00)00053-6.

Robertson, J. et al. (2018). Self-reported smoking, alcohol and drug use among adolescents and young adults with and without mild to moderate intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 45(1), pp. 35-45. https://doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2018.1440773.

Rurangirwa, J. et al. (2006). Healthy behaviors and lifestyles in young adults with a history of developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 27(4), pp. 381-399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2005.01.003.

Salavert, J. et al. (2018). Substance use disorders in patients with intellectual disability admitted to psychiatric hospitalization. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 62(11), pp. 923-930. https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12514.

Schalock, R. L. et al. (2021). Intellectual disability: Definition, diagnosis, classification, and systems of supports (12th ed.). American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

Schijven, E. P. et al. (2019). Substance use among individuals with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning in residential care: Examining the relationship between drinking motives and substance use. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 32(4), pp. 871-878. https://doi.org/10.1111/jar.12578.

Simpson, M. (2012). Alcohol and intellectual disability Personal problem or cultural exclusion? Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 16(3), pp. 183-192. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744629512455595.

Slayter, E. M. (2010). Demographic and clinical characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities with and without substance abuse disorders in a Medicaid population. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 48(6), pp. 417-431. https://doi.org/10.1352/1934-9556-48.6.417.

Slayter, E. M. (2016). Disparities in substance abuse treatment utilization among women with intellectual disability. Journal of Social Work in Disability and Rehabilitation, 15(2), pp. 96-115. https://doi.org/10.1080/1536710X.2016.1162120.

Slayter, E. M. y Steenrod, S. A. (2009). Addressing alcohol and drug addiction among people with mental retardation in nonaddiction settings: A need for cross-system collaboration. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 9(1), pp. 71-90. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332560802646547.

Sondenaa, E. et al. (2008). The prevalence and nature of intellectual disability in Norwegian prisons. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52, pp. 1129-1137. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2008.01072.x.

Swerts, C. et al. (2016). Substance use among individuals with intellectual disabilities living independently in Flanders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 63, 107-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2016.03.019.

Taggart, L. et al. (2006). An exploration of substance misuse in people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50(8), pp. 588-597. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2006.00820.x.

Taggart, L. et al. (2007a). Young people with learning disabilities living in state care: Their emotional, behavioural, and mental health status. Child Care in Practice, 13(4), pp. 401-416. https://doi.org/10.1080/13575270701488816.

Taggart, L. et al. (2007b). Listening to people with intellectual disabilities who misuse alcohol and drugs”. Health and Social Care in the Community, 15(4), pp. 360-368. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2007.00691.x.

Tenneij, N. H. y Koot, H. M. (2007). A preliminary investigation into the utility of the Adult Behavior Checklist in the assessment of psychopathology in people with low IQ. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 20(5), pp. 391-400. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3148.2007.00383.x.

To, W. T. et al. (2014). Substance use and misuse in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID): Results of a survey in ID and addiction services in Flanders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(1), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2013.10.015.

van Duijvenbode, N. et al. (2015). Substance use disorders in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability: Current status and future directions. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38, pp. 319-328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2014.12.029.

van Duijvenbode, N. et al. (2016a). Cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 22(1), pp. 5-17. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744629516664840.

van Duijvenbode, N. et al. (2016b). Everybody is... Drinking! Interpretation bias in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 9(1-2), pp. 101-117. https://doi.org/10.1080/19315864.2016.1166303.

van Duijvenbode, N. et al. (2016c). The addicted brain: cognitive biases in problematic drinkers with mild to borderline intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60(3), pp. 242-253. https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12244.

van Duijvenbode, N. y VanDerNagel, J. E. L. (2019). A systematic review of substance use (disorder) in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability. European Addiction Research, 25(6), pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1159/000501679.

VanDerNagel, J. E. L. et al. (2011). Staff perspectives of substance use and misuse among adults with intellectual disabilities enrolled in Dutch disability services. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 8(3), pp. 143-149. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-1130.2011.00304.x.

VanDerNagel, J. E. L. et al. (2018). The perception of substance use disorder among clinicians, caregivers and family members of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 11(1), pp. 54-68. https://doi.org/10.1080/19315864.2017.1390712.

West, S. L. et al. (2009a). Prevalence of persons with disabilities in alcohol/other drug treatment in the United States. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 27(3), pp. 242-252. https://doi.org/10.1080/07347320903008133.

West, S. L. et al. (2009b). Rates of persons with disabilities in alcohol/other drug treatment in Canada. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 27(3), pp. 253-264. https://doi.org/10.1080/07347320903008158.

Westermeyer, J. et al. (1988). Substance use and abuse among mentally retarded persons: A comparison of patients and a survey population. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 14(1), pp. 109-123. https://doi.org/10.3109/00952998809001539.

Westermeyer, J. et al. (1996). Substance disorder among persons with mild mental retardation. The American Journal on Addictions, 5(1), pp. 23-31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1521-0391.1996.tb00280.x.

Zhang, D. et al. (2011). Juvenile offenders with and without disabilities: Risk and patterns of recidivism. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(1), pp. 12-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2010.09.006.

Zunic-Pavlovic, V. et al. (2013). Drug use in adolescents with mild intellectual disability in different arrangements”. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 20(5), pp. 399-407. https://doi.org/10.3109/09687637.2013.767320.

Publicado
2021-06-10