Herramientas de cribado para la detección de retrasos o trastornos en el desarrollo: Una revisión sistemática de la literatura

Francisco Alcantud Marín, Yurena Alonso Esteban, Darío Rico Bañón

Resumen


El objetivo del artículo es analizar los diferentes instrumentos de detección de trastornos o retraso en el desarrollo para valorar la calidad y aplicabilidad de los mismos. Se realiza una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas publicadas en los últimos 25 años (1990-2014) e indexadas en bases de datos internacionales disponibles en línea. El estudio se limita a herramientas de detección basadas en cuestionarios, tests o sistemas de observación de la conducta del niño. Las herramientas o sistemas analizados son valorados según una escala de calidad construida “ad hoc”. Los resultados demuestran una gran variabilidad de herramientas y sistemas de detección, muchos de ellos son cuestionarios de investigación, otros son herramientas de diagnóstico utilizadas con fines de detección. Se pueden clasificar en dos grandes bloques, los construidos en base a los hitos evolutivos cuyo incumplimiento temporal puede significar un retraso en el desarrollo y aquellos otros que, asumiendo el primer principio han seleccionado los hitos que pueden ser precursores de trastornos del desarrollo. En las conclusiones se realizan recomendaciones para la validación de los sistemas de detección en España y la construcción de nuevos.

Palabras clave


Revisión sistemática; detección; trastornos del desarrollo; retraso en el desarrollo

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Referencias


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